Clinical Research Assistant II OHSU Portland, Oregon, United States
Background: As the leading cause of preventable death, cigarettes present additional adverse health effects through pediatric second-hand exposure.A growing body of evidence exists for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for smoking cessation. Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to record the frequency/compliance of daily mindfulness activities, implemented without formal interventions or training, in a subset of participants who were actively smoking. The association between mindfulness compliance and self-reported average number of cigarettes smoked per day was also evaluated. Design/Methods: Participants were recruited from an existing longitudinal cohort of maternal-child dyads investigating the effect of pre- and postnatal maternal smoking on childhood respiratory health. This includes quarterly standardized respiratory questionnaires documenting maternal smoking. Inclusion criteria for this pilot study included documented maternal smoking of ≥ 10 cigarettes/day, history of compliance with data collection in the larger ongoing study, and consent to participate in the pilot study for 29 days.43 individuals met eligibility criteriaand the first 20 to respond to the study invitation and to consent were included. P</span>articipants were texted instructions includinga specific definition of mindfulness (Figure 1)and examples of mindfulness (Figure 2) the day prior to the study start date. It was not disclosed to participants that this study was smoking-related. Text messages were sent for 29 days, asking “Did you practice mindfulness today or p</span>articipate in a mindfulness activity? Yes or No”. On the final day an average daily number of cigarettes value was recorded for each participant. Results: Participants were female and primarilywhite(90%)with a mean age of 35.5 years and mean offspring age of8.9 years. 70% of the 20 participants participated in mindfulness >50% of the 29 days. The mean number of cigarettes/daydecreased from 15.1 (median 13.5) to 12.5 cigarettes/day(median 10.5) post intervention (p< 0.05, Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test) (Figure 3). No association was demonstrated between the decrease in cigarettes/day and reported mindfulness compliance.
Conclusion(s): In this pilot study of a longitudinal cohort of maternal-child dyads, self-initiated mindfulness was feasible as 70% of participants practiced mindfulness >50% of the time. The median number of cigarettes smoked/day decreased during the pilot study. These results support a larger trial of this study design for caregiver smoking cessation in longitudinal cohorts.